The Environmental Impact Of Small‐scale Gold Mining In
Small scale mining in Ghana generally refers to artisanal mining of precious minerals particularly gold and diamonds. It should be noted that, other industrial minerals like salt, sand, gravel, granite, quartzite, clay, kaolin are also mined on small scale basis in Ghana. Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in developing countries is a largely.In Ghana, the regulation of artisanal gold mining is set forth in the Small-Scale Gold Mining Law, 1989 (PNDCL 218). The Precious Minerals Marketing Corporation Law, 1989 (PNDCL 219), set up the Precious Minerals Marketing Corporation (PMMC) to promote the development of small-scale gold and diamond mining in Ghana and to purchase.Mar 09, 2021 In Ghana small-scale mining employs an estimated one million people and supports about 4.5 million . The sector is characterized by unsafe working conditions, pollution of water bodies, land degradation, informal mining and gender-based exclusion. About half of the workers in the sector are women but most of them are engaged in informal mining.In Ghana, small-scale (gold) mining is deﬁned as ― mining (gold) by any method not involving substantial expenditure by an individual or group of persons not exceeding nine in number or by a co-operative society made up of ten or persons‖(Aryee et al, 9 2002).